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Introduction to Service-Learning Toolkit: Readings and Resources for Faculty (Second Edition)
This new revised edition of our bestselling book brings together the best, most up-to-date writing and resources on service-learning, from learning theory and pedagogy to practical guidance on how to implement service-learning in the classroom. This edition reflects the tremendous growth in service-learning that has occurred since the first Toolkit was published in 2000. In addition to updated material throughout, this volume includes expanded chapters on community partnerships, student development, and redesigning curriculum, as well as two new chapters—one exploring the connection between service-learning and civic engagement and the other focusing on community-based research. Revised and expanded recommended reading lists, broken down by topic, bring readers a wealth of print and online resources for further study. The Introduction to Service-Learning Toolkit is an essential resource for faculty and administrators who wish to be part of the growing movement toward civic engagement in higher education.
Author: Campus Compact.
Table of Contents
Introduction to the Second Edition, by Steven Jones
Definitions and Principles
Service-Learning Definitions and Principles of Good Practice
Service-Learning: A Balanced Approach to Experiential Education, by Andrew Furco
At a Glance: What We Know About the Effects of Service-Learning on College Students, Faculty, Institutions, and Communities, 1993-2000, Third Edition, by Janet S. Eyler, Dwight E.Giles, Jr., Christine M. Stenson, and Charlene J. Gray
Service-Learning Resources on the Web
Definitions and Principles: Recommended Reading
Service-Learning Practice: Developing a Theoretical Framework, by Dick Cone and Susan Harris
Toward a Theory of Engagement: A Cognitive Mapping of Service-Learning Experiences, by Kerry Ann Rockquemore and Regan Harwell Schaffer
Learning Theory: Recommended Reading
Academic Service Learning: A Counternormative Pedagogy, by Jeffrey P.F. Howard
Pedagogy and Engagement, by Edward Zlotkowski
Pedagogy: Recommended Reading
Reflection in Service Learning: Making Meaning of Experience, by Robert G. Bringle and Julie A. Hatcher
Reading, Writing, and Reflection, by David D. Cooper
Reflection: Recommended Reading
Community Service Learning in the Curriculum, by Jeffrey Howard
Course Organization, by Kerrissa Heffernan and Richard Cone
Redesigning Curriculum: Recommended Reading
From Accreditation to Strategic Planning: An Administrator?s Interpretation of Service Learning, by Erin Swezey
Rediscovering Our Heritage: Community Service and the Historically Black University, by Beverly W. Jones
Model Programs: Recommended Reading
Long-Term Effects of Volunteerism During the Undergraduate Years, by Alexander W. Astin, Linda J. Sax, and Juan Avalos
Comparing the Effects of Community Service and Service-Learning, by Lori J. Vogelgesang and Alexander W. Astin
Student Development: Recommended Reading
Civic Skill Building: The Missing Component in Service Programs? by Mary Kirlin
The Service/Politics Split: Rethinking Service to Teach Political Engagement, by Tobi Walker
What Should Be Learned through Service Learning? by Michael X. Delli Carpini and Scott Keeter
What Is Good Citizenship? Conceptual Frameworks Across Disciplines, by Richard M. Battistoni
Civic Engagement: Recommended Reading
Civic Engagement Resources on the Web
The State of the ?Engaged Campus?: What Have We Learned About Building and Sustaining University-Community Partnerships? by Barbara A. Holland and Sherril B. Gelmon
Higher Education/Community Partnerships: Assessing Progress in the Field, by David J. Maurrasse
Community Partnerships: Recommended Reading
Principles of Best Practice for Community-Based Research, by Kerry Strand, Sam Marullo, Nick Cutforth, Randy Stoecker, and Patrick Donohue
Community-Based Research: Recommended Reading
An Assessment Model for Service-Learning: Comprehensive Case Studies of Impact on Faculty, Students, Community, and Institution, by Amy Driscoll, Barbara Holland, Sherril Gelmon, and Seanna Kerrigan
How Do We Know That Our Work Makes A Difference? Assessment Strategies for Service-Learning and Civic Engagement, by Sherril B. Gelmon
Assessment: Recommended Reading
The Scholarship of Engagement, by Ernest L. Boyer
Factors and Strategies that Influence Faculty Involvement in Public Service, by Barbara A. Holland
Addressing Academic Culture: Service Learning, Organizations, and Faculty Work, by Kelly Ward
Uncovering the Values in Faculty Evaluation of Service as Scholarship, by KerryAnn O?Meara
Academic Culture: Recommended Reading
Promotion and Tenure
Promotion & Tenure: Introduction
Retention, Tenure and Promotion Policy and Process, California State University, Monterey Bay
Criteria, Documentation and Procedures for Reappointment, Tenure and Promotion, Office of the Provost and Vice President for Academic Affairs, Montclair State University
Policies and Procedures for the Evaluation of Faculty for Tenure, Promotion, and Merit Increases, Portland State University
Promotion and Tenure: Recommended Reading
Great Books for Further Reading
Introduction to Service-Learning Toolkit: Readings and Resources for Faculty - Second Edition
The contents of this revised edition reflect growing interest in and, consequently, publications about service-learning since the first Introduction to Service-Learning Toolkit was published in 2000. This growth is reflected in the expanded "Recommended Readings" lists that accompany each chapter as well as in the new selections that have been added to this edition. In addition to updated material throughout and expanded chapters on Community Partnerships, Student Development, and Redesigning Curriculum, we have added two new chapters, one exploring the connection between service-learning and civic engagement and the other focusing on community-based research.
The growing body of literature about service-learning can be attributed to several factors. The first is a dramatic increase in the number of faculty who employ service-learning in the classroom. Results from Campus Compact’s 2002 member survey revealed that campuses offer an average of 30 service-learning courses each, up from 27 just a year before. A related factor is expansion in the number of campuses committed to the civic purposes of higher education. Colleges and universities across the country are rediscovering their historic missions of preparing students for lives of democratic participation and applying their institutional resources to addressing societal needs. This increased commitment is reflected in the growth of Campus Compact, the only higher education association whose sole purpose is to promote campus-based public and community service. In 2000, when the first edition of the Toolkit was published, Campus Compact had just over 650 member campuses and 22 state Compact offices. These figures have grown to more than 900 member campuses served by 30 state Compact offices.
Finally, the increased attention to service-learning is part of a heightened focus on engaged teaching and learning practices in general. Scholars and academic leaders such as Ernest Boyer, John Barr, Robert Tagg, George Kuh, and Terry O’Banion"as well as organizations such as the Carnegie Endowment for Teaching and Learning, the American Association for Higher Education, the American Association of Community Colleges, the Association of American Colleges and Universities, and the League for Innovation"have challenged America’s colleges and universities to make student learning central to the academic mission of higher education. Those who have accepted this challenge have found service-learning to be a powerful strategy for engaging their students in mastery of academic skills and content through service to their communities.
It is more evident than ever that service-learning is not a recent phenomenon or an educational fad; it has a rich history rooted in the transformative progressive educational and social ideals of those such as John Dewey and Jane Addams. Like other forms of experiential education, service-learning allows students to test skills and facts learned in the classroom, sharpen problem-solving abilities, and work collaboratively with diverse groups of people. At the same time, service-learning differs from other forms of experiential education in that it focuses on preparing students for practical community-based problem solving rather than for a particular job or career.
Service-learning offers students an opportunity to explore the connections between the theoretical realm of the classroom and the practical needs of the community. It simultaneously reinforces the skills of critical thinking, public discourse, collective activity, and community building. The educational context for the service activity requires students to reflect upon their service experiences in relation to community principles, civic ideals, and universal virtues, as well as course content. Perhaps the most important long-term benefit of service-learning is the opportunity for students to connect to a community and identify their civic roles in that community.
This revised toolkit is designed to provide an introduction to some of the fundamental issues surrounding teaching and learning that lie at the core of service-learning. The essays and bibliographies in the toolkit examine both the research underpinning service-learning as a pedagogy and the practicalities of implementing service-learning on campus and in the classroom. Chapters address a spectrum of topics from the principles and theory of service-learning to model programs to promotion and tenure guidelines:
- Definitions and principles
- Learning theory
- Redesigning curriculum
- Model programs
- Student development
- Civic engagement
- Community partnerships
- Community-based research
- Academic culture
- Promotion and tenure
Each section begins with a series of questions; reflecting upon these questions can help the reader gain insight into where he or she falls on the continuum of service-learning"from beginner to advanced practitioner. Answers to the questions will assist in the development of individual and/or institutional action plans for incorporating service-learning into the curriculum.<
In addition to helping faculty work through "nuts and bolts" issues related to service-learning, this toolkit has another goal: to encourage faculty to reconceptualize not only their curricula, but also their disciplinary training and their roles as educators. Faculty are increasingly defined by narrow disciplinary boundaries. This constriction has resulted in departmental fragmentation, reward structures that are heavily biased toward scholarship, and an insular culture of academic professionalism. Many faculty express a sense of powerlessness on campus and a lack of clarity about their institutional role. This response comes in part from the isolation of privatized work, the disengagement of expertise, and a culture of discourse built on argument.
Part of reconceptualizing the role of faculty in a manner that can address these issues is to think about how to move the fragmented and insular work of the academy toward greater connection and agency. This requires faculty and administrators to examine strategies for shifting from a culture of privatized work to one of collective work, both within the department and across the institution. It also requires connecting professional expertise to public discourse for wider civic engagement and as a way of approaching the construction of knowledge. Finally, allowing faculty, students, and community partners to become part of the process of constructing knowledge requires shifting from a culture of argument to one of dialogue. Moving toward a reflective pedagogy that is student-centered, community-based, and experiential fundamentally redefines the faculty role on campus.
As empowering as service-learning can be in redefining faculty roles, many faculty find it difficult to relinquish the comfortable and predictable nature of classroom work, particularly at the beginning of the process. Service-learning is inevitably unpredictable and often uncomfortable. It challenges faculty and students on many levels as it incorporates shifting dialogues and actively engages participants in issues such as equity, difference, inclusion, tolerance, justice, and power.
In addition to taking faculty out of their comfort zones with respect to how to teach (pedagogy), adopting service-learning often raises issues related to what to teach (epistemology). This is because service-learning shifts the authority of knowledge in the classroom and intentionally places community in the center of the learning process. Such a shift requires acknowledgement that educational design is critical to engagement and that the construction of knowledge is directly related to how we utilize knowledge in reasoning. Furthermore, service as academic work assumes that cognitive, affective, and moral growth are inseparable, and that a student’s ability to analyze situations and material is critical to his or her ability to make responsible decisions outside of the classroom. These skills and experiences are critical to participatory citizenship. In both civic and intellectual life one must consistently reflect on one’s position, reconcile one’s preconceptions with the lived experiences of others, and uphold an ethic of personal accountability and social responsibility.
The readings and questions in the Introduction to Service-Learning Toolkit are intended not only to raise these pedagogical and epistemological issues, but also to help the reader, either alone or with campus colleagues, work through these issues to broaden and deepen teaching and learning. Of course, the manner in which service-learning develops on your campus will differ in many respects from how it emerges on another campus. Its qualities will be shaped in large part by institutional identity and the degree to which that identity is tied to a wider sense of social responsibility. It will develop according to the characteristics of the academic culture on your campus and the degree to which your campus values community-based education, redefinitions of scholarship, and professional service aimed toward outreach and public purpose.
In some cases, institutional adoption of service-learning will be determined by a few faculty who act as agents for transformation. The tools provided here are intended both to assist faculty in thinking about teaching and learning and to encourage faculty to consider their roles as change agents on campus. As educator Parker Palmer has noted, "People seldom think their way into new ways of acting; more often they act their way into new ways of thinking."
Integrating Service with Academic Study
Campus Compact Has Brought Back Three Popular Out-of-Print Titles
When we found that three of our most popular titles were out of print, yet people were still asking for them, we undertook a new project to digitally reprint them. Now they are available here in our Book Store for administrators, faculty, and students alike. Please let us know what other books you would like to have reprinted and we will consider making those available as well. Contact: Emily Wood, Director of Communications, firstname.lastname@example.org
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